By Vernon PriorNB: Entries marked with an * are new or modified entries with effect from 12 July 2009
Abstract is an objective and accurate condensation of a Document, which can vary in length from a mere expansion or Enrichment of the title to several paragraphs. Abstracts can save a great deal of time and effort and will alert you to newly published work that may otherwise be difficult to trace. At the very least, an abstract will help you to decide whether or not you need to read the original material. See also: Bibliography, Indicative abstract, Informative abstract, Synopsis.
Active disinformation, see Disinformation.
Advanced technologies, also commonly referred to by the term High technology, are those that:
· require significant expertise and Research and development input;
· involve a high proportion of knowledge workers;
· call for the intensive transfer and exchange of Information;
· result in high-value-added products.
See also: Knowledge-based industries, Nanotechnology, Research and development, Technology.
After action reviews (AAR) are presentations or discussions following an event or activity by those involved with, or interested in, that event and whose purpose is to learn from it. An AAR should describe what was intended to happen, what was actually accomplished, what mistakes were made, what lessons were learned, and how participation in similar events might be improved in the future. They may be recorded in a variety of media as a form of reference for future use. Briefings and AARs (also referred to as Debriefings) are excellent learning tools and help to instil an information-sharing culture. Their effectiveness depends to a great extent on accurately identifying the most appropriate audience. See also: Briefing, Debriefing, Intranet, Knowledge management, Mind maps, Narrative, Report.
Algorithm is a process or set of rules for calculating or solving problems, especially when using computers. See also: Predictive analytics.
Alliance is a form of cooperation between two or more independent companies in which they share risks and revenues with the aim of jointly improving their Competitive advantage. Alliances may include licensing, clusters, co-marketing arrangements, shared R&D, joint ventures, franchising agreements, outsourcing partnerships, and investments. See also: Cluster, Joint project, Joint venture, Lead-firm network, Networking, Production network, Research and development, Service network, Strategic alliance.
Alternative outcomes analysis, see Scenario analysis.
Ambush marketing occurs when a company that does not directly support a specific event attempts to present itself as a marketing partner. This is usually achieved through the use of misleading advertising or promotional activities. See also Disinformation.
Analysis involves the examination of complex Information in order to ascertain what has happened (or is about to happen), what it means, and what should be done about it. The fundamental forms of analysis are: Deduction, Induction, Pattern recognition, and Trend analysis. See also: Cluster analysis, Competitor profiling, Industry profiling, Intelligence analysis, Predictive analytics, Scenario analysis, SWOT analysis, Synthesis.
Analysis paralysis is a colloquial expression that implies that one's decision-making ability is severely impaired by exposure to overwhelming volumes of Information; it is a symptom of Information fatigue syndrome. See also: Information overload.
Annotation is a note, usually added to a Bibliographic reference, by way of comment, explanation, or description. It may also be referred to as a Scope note when used in a Thesaurus. See also: Bibliography.
Application service provider (ASP) manages and delivers application capabilities to multiple entities from a data centre across a wide area network (WAN).
Applied research is original work done in order to acquire new Knowledge with a specific, practical application in view. It is undertaken either to determine the possible uses for the findings of Basic research or to determine new ways of achieving some specific and predetermined objectives. See also: Research, Research and development.
Archie is a software tool for locating files stored on anonymous File transfer protocol (FTP) sites; knowledge of the exact file name or a sub-string is essential to successful retrieval.
Argument mapping, see Visualisation.
Artificial intelligence applies to a computer system that is able to operate in a manner similar to that of human intelligence; that is, it can understand natural language and is capable of solving problems, learning, adapting, recognising, classifying, self-improvement, and reasoning. Examples of its application include Expert systems, Intelligent agents, Neural networks, and Robotics. See also: Classify, Cognitive science, Predictive analytics.
Artilect is a neologism used to describe a computer incorporating Artificial intelligence and which is capable of programming and improving its own operations.
Assigned-term indexing involves assessing a record or Document and deciding on the appropriate terms to apply to it. See also: Derived-term indexing, Enrichment, Index.
Assumption is that which is taken as being true for the purpose of argument or action.
Asynchronous digital subscriber line (ADSL) permits high-speed data transmission on copper wire.
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) in telecommunications is a broadband technology that permits large volumes of voice, image, text, or video data to be transmitted simultaneously.
Authentication is the process by which an individual confirms his or her identity, usually by means of a signature, an official Document, a personal identification number (PIN), a Password, a digital certificate, or some other acceptable means. See also: Corporate security.
Automatic indexing uses a program to select words or phrases to identify content. It often employs several Indexing languages (such as a Classification scheme, natural language, a Controlled vocabulary, a Standard Industry Code, or a Country Code).
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