By Vernon PriorNB: Entries marked with an * are new or modified entries with effect from 12 July 2009
Dashboard is a Visualisation tool that provides graphical depictions of current key performance indicators in order to enable faster response to changes in areas such as sales, customer relations, performance assessments, and inventory levels.
*Data consist of unconnected facts, numbers, names, codes, symbols, dates, words, and other items of that nature that are out of context, and that only acquire meaning through association. See also: Business intelligence, Code, Content management, Information, Knowledge, Knowledge management.
Data logging involves the conversion of electrical impulses from process instruments into digital Data to be recorded, stored, and periodically tabulated.
Data mart is a focused collection of operational Data that is usually confined to a specific aspect of a business. A number of stand-alone data marts are often referred to as Islands of data.
*Data mining is the systematic computer Analysis, through the use of statistical techniques (often employing Neural networks), of large volumes of collected Data with the aim of revealing previously unidentified patterns, trends, and relationships about customers, products, services, and other activities that can lead to new and profitable business Opportunities. As with any Database, the essential aspects are to do with accurate, up-to-date content, and with the means used for locating and matching that content to user needs. In other words, the level and quality of the associated intellectual input is critical. For these reasons the procedure is complex and protracted, calling for specialised expertise and imagination. Data base mining is also known as Database tomography, Discovery informatics, or Knowledge discovery. Examples of data mining applications include: identifying new customers, predicting customer buying habits, confirming suitable loan applicants, revealing fraud, indicating potentially rewarding investments, managing equity portfolios, diagnosing medical problems, managing inventory, and conducting certain aspects of Marketing. See also: Content management, Data warehouse, Predictive analytics, Text mining, Visualisation.
*Data warehouse is a repository of operational Data from one or more sources within an organisation, together with data derived from a variety of external sources that have been arranged into meaningful Information, and rendered easily accessible so as to allow for effective Analysis or decision-making. See also: Content management, Data mining, Predictive analytics.
Database is a collection of interrelated Data stored together without harmful or unnecessary redundancy and structured in such a manner as to serve one or more applications. The data are stored so that they are independent of programs that use the data.
Database tomography, see Data mining.
Datasmog, see Information overload.
Debriefing is an alternative term for After Action Reviews. See also, Briefing, Knowledge management, Mind maps, Narrative.
Deception is the use of fraud, subterfuge, or false or misleading information in order to conceal the truth or to gain an advantage. See also: Pretexting, Social engineering.
Decision diary records decisions made, together with any assumptions made and the reasoning employed. It is used to derive lessons to assist future decision-making.
Decision tree is a graphical representation of the Analysis of sequential decisions and their likely outcomes. See also: Predictive analytics.
Deduction is based on theory and logic. It involves reasoning from the general to the particular; drawing specific conclusions from general premises; to infer. For example, to ascribe to one member of a class the properties generally observed in other members of that same class. In general, scientific laws are established in this way. From a number of observations, a generalisation (or law) is drawn: the greater the number of observations, the more reliable the conclusion is likely to be. See also: Analysis, Induction, Intelligence analysis.
Deep Web, see Invisible Web.
Deliberate practice refers to a form of training that consists of focused, gruelling, repetitive practice in which the subject continuously monitors his or her performance, and subsequently corrects, experiments, and reacts to immediate and constant feedback, with the aim of steady and consistent improvement. It is generally accepted that this form of training calls for approximately 10,000 hours of concentrated effort if one is to achieve the optimum level of expertise. The major lesson for business is that employees must be allowed to push themselves to their limits instead of only doing what they are paid to do. It also means that they must receive rapid and instantaneous feedback on results. The technique is based on research conducted by Anders Ericsson. See also: Knowledge creation, Learning.
Demography is the scientific study of human communities, including size, composition, distribution, density, movement, rate of growth or decline, and other characteristics, and of the causes and consequences of changes in these factors. See also: Census, Market intelligence, Market segmentation.
Derived-term indexing is where the Indexing terms are extracted directly from the record or Document. See also: Assigned-term indexing, Enrichment, Index.
Descriptor is a term attached to a Document to permit its subsequent location and retrieval. See also: Indexing.
Design refers to the ornamental and visual aspects of an article. See also: Intellectual property.
Desktop conferencing, see Video conferencing.
Development includes those technical activities of a non-routine nature concerned with translating Research findings or other scientific knowledge into products, processes, materials, devices, or services. See also: Applied research, Innovation, Research and development, Technology transfer.
Dictionary is concerned primarily with words; with their spelling, pronunciation, and meaning, in one or more languages. Dictionaries may apply to a specific subject field, or may be restricted to abbreviations. See also: Glossary.
Diffusion is the process whereby new Knowledge, Know-how, and innovations spread from an innovating organisation to other potential or actual users; or is the spread of innovations into general use. See also: Commercialisation, Creativity, Development, Extension service, Innovation, Intellectual property, Networking, Social network analysis, Technology transfer.
Digest is a condensed version of a Document or topic, or of several related topics. It is similar in many respects to an Informative abstract. The term may also refer to a regular or occasional Synopsis of current literature or news. See also: Report.
Directory is primarily a list of names and contact details of people and organisations, together with descriptions of their projects, activities, products, and expertise arranged in a variety of ways; mainly in alphabetical, subject, or classified order. Online directories provide lists of subject headings that are arranged hierarchically, from broader to narrower terms, and are compiled by human editors. They are more suitable for browsing and easier to navigate than Search engines. Be aware, however, that online directory compilers usually rely on descriptions submitted by site creators. See also: Classify, Hierarchical classification, Index.
Discovery informatics, see Data mining.
Discussion group, see Newsgroup.
Disinformation may be of two kinds. Active disinformation is that which is promulgated with the intention to deceive others in the expectation of benefit. It is designed to change people's perceptions of reality and persuade them to accept certain desired conclusions by the use of exaggerated, false, or misleading Information. Passive disinformation is when possibly detrimental information is deliberately ignored or concealed. See also: Ambush marketing, Information warfare, Misinformation, Social engineering.
Distance learning is that branch of education in which teachers and students are at remote locations rather than in direct contact. They communicate by correspondence, email, the Internet, radio, television, cctv, computer-assisted interactive tutorials, video-Teleconferencing, and so on. Distance learning may also be referred to as Distance teaching. See also: Closed-circuit television, Computer-assisted interactive tutorial system, Educational technology, Electronic mail, Groupware.
Distance teaching, see Distance learning.
*Document contains recorded human Knowledge, in any format; or is Information structured in such a way as to facilitate human comprehension. Essential elements usually include: the identity of the originator(s), one or more addressees, a title, the date of origin, relevant information, and – where feasible – one or more signatories. See also: Communication, Content management, Explicit knowledge, File, Report, Surrogate.
*Document management system is a computer-based technique for storing and retrieving documents held in a wide variety of formats or in a number of geographic locations. Many systems allow for the control and recording of changes to documents, as well as a measure of the volume of use. A document management system may also be referred to as a Record management system. See also: Content management, Document.
Domain name is the unique identifier for an Internet site, having two or more parts separated by dots. Reading from left to right leads from the general to the specific.
Download is to retrieve Information from the Internet.
Dungeon, see Multi-user dimension.
Duopoly market is one in which the combined share of the top two companies is more that 73.9% of the market, and the leading company has less than 1.7 times the Market share of the second company.
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