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Glossary of terms used in competitive intelligence and knowledge management  

By Vernon Prior

NB: Entries marked with an * are new or modified entries with effect from 12 July 2009

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P / Q - R - S - T - U - V - W / X / Y/ Z


Offset arrangements refer to obligatory technological activities of certain overseas suppliers.  See also: International trade

Oligopoly market is where the combined Market share of the top three companies is greater than 73.9% of the total Market and where the combined share of the second and third companies is greater than that of the market leader.   

Ontology was originally a branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being.  It is currently used to describe a vocabulary of terms and associated definitions or rules covering a specific domain.  Thus an ontology may be regarded as a Database together with associated Information about the categories or concepts that exist in that domain, what properties they have, and how they relate to each other.  See also: Classification scheme, Classify, Concept, Controlled vocabulary, Hypertext, Index, Knowledge engineering, Knowledge map, Semantic networks, Taxonomy, Thesaurus, Topic maps

Open proprietary information includes Information gathered through Reverse engineering of legitimately acquired products and services, or through legally conducted Business intelligence operations. 

Open source information is unclassified published Information. It includes non-proprietary Grey literature as well as Information published electronically (on the Internet, for example). 

Operating environment, see Business environment

Operational effectiveness involves conducting similar activities to direct competitors, but being better in some way, such as faster, of higher quality, or at reduced cost; in other words, conforming to ‘best practice’.   See also: Competitive, Competitive advantage. 

Operational planning refers to organisational Planning covering the mid-term, that is, from one to two years into the future.   

Operating environment, see Business environment

Operations room, see War room

Opportunities are favourable events or circumstances that may help a company to achieve its objectives or gain a Competitive advantage.  See also: Entrepreneur, Intrapreneur, Opportunity analysis, Strategic early warning, SWOT analysis

Opportunity analysis is the identification and evaluation of potential business Opportunities coupled with an assessment of the organisation's ability to exploit them.  See also: Entrepreneur, Intrapreneur

Optical computers use various combinations of lasers, holographs, and mass-storage media for such applications as optical character recognition, improved image clarity, and high-speed signal processing. 

Optimisation is a scientific approach to solving problems, the purpose of which is to improve on the subjective aspects of decision-making; thus improving operational efficiency. It calls for the mathematical formulation of the problem and an explicit statement of the desired objectives.  The method consists of creating a mathematical model and using computational means to help choose the best schedule of actions among alternatives.  See also: Modelling

Organisation network analysis, see Social network analysis

Organisational culture, see Corporate culture

Organised system is an assembly of interdependent elements and/or organised systems the physical activities of which are controlled by the interchange of Information so that they cooperate for a purpose.



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Status: 01. Juli 2015